Criminal Justice

Advising federal, state, and local agencies on criminal justice, incarceration, and community supervision programs

Our Goal

Reduce incarceration while keeping crime rates—especially violent crime rates—down through criminal justice innovations.

Our Solutions

  • Substantially replace prison with community supervision based on a modest list of rules, tight monitoring, and swift-certain-fair sanctions.
  • Expand swift-certain-fair sanctioning to juvenile offenders, individuals on pretrial release, jail inmates, and prisoners.
  • Improve the success of reintegration from prison and jail to the community by using graduated re-entry to make the transition smooth, not abrupt.
  • Require alcohol-involved offenders to abstain from alcohol by using alcohol testing and swift-certain-fair sanctions.
  • Replace draconian school-discipline systems with positive group incentives, on the model of the “Good Behavior Game.”
  • Manage gang violence with group-level deterrence.
  • Prevent, diagnose, and treat fetal alcohol exposure.
  • Reduce childhood exposure to lead.

Our Clients

Office of the Attorney General, State of Mississippi

In 2014, the Mississippi Legislature budgeted money for a crime prevention study to be overseen by the Mississippi Attorney General in response to concerns about violent crime in the capital city of Jackson. After a meeting of local criminal justice stakeholders, the Office of the Attorney General asked BOTEC Analysis to (1) analyze the volume of criminal cases in Hinds County and the ratio of resources and court personnel available to process the cases and evaluate current formula for allocating resources such as judges, court personnel, prosecutors, and public defenders, and (2) analyze and evaluate current case processing with an eye toward shortening the process from offense to penalty. Please click here to access the completed reports.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts seal

Office of the Commissioner of Probation, Commonwealth of Massachusetts

At the end of 2012, the District and Superior Courts of Worcester, Massachusetts had a combined caseload of over 1,100 high-risk offenders and the Office of the Commissioner of Probation needed a better strategy for managing them. In fall of 2013, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts announced that the Trial Court of Worcester would administer a pilot program for criminal justice reform using the Swift, Certain, and Fair (SCF) sanctions model in an effort to promote successful probation outcomes and reduce recidivism. The Commonwealth chose BOTEC Analysis as the external research organization to implement the program, monitor fidelity, and evaluate outcome data. The project is currently in progress.

 US-OfficeOfJusticePrograms 900x786National Institute of Justice

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice. NIJ is one of the primary components of the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) branch of the Department of Justice.

For the National Institute of Justice, BOTEC has conducted studies on street-level drug crackdowns, the empirical measurement of drug availability, violence-minimizing drug law enforcement, the behavioral economics of deterrence, and the management of drug-involved offenders.

BOTEC publications for the National Institute of Justice

Managing Drug-Involved Offenders – July 2014
Measuring the Costs of Crime – April 2014
Drug-Attributable Crime and Methods to Improve Estimates – April 2014
Drug Control and Reductions in Drug-Attributable Crime – April 2014
Reducing Drug Violence in Mexico Using Targeted Enforcement Methods – April 2014
Hawaii’s HOPE: An Evaluation of Swift & Certain Sanction Strategies for Probationers – Dec 2009
Criminal Justice Strategies to Reduce Drug Abuse in Indianapolis and Marion County – May 1995
Measures Marginal Public Benefit Against the Costs of Incarcerating Each Additional Year – May 1990
Strategic Suggestions for Police Executives – Sept 1989
The Effects of Intensive Enforcement on Retail Heroin Dealing – Sept 1988


Governor of Georgia’s Commission on Certainty in Sentencing

Georgia has several advisory commissions established under statutory law. The Governor’s Commission on Certainty in Sentencing was founded in 1999 by Governor Roy Barnes and consists of representatives from several law enforcement agencies as well as representatives of victims-of-crime advocacy groups.

BOTEC advised the Governor of Georgia on the varying effects of sentencing for the market-based nature of drug crime, identifying the operational difference in selling drugs versus the moral imperative to punish violent crime. Their work helped establish the present criminal justice reform policy at work today.

BOTEC publications for the Governor of Georgia

Recognizing the Effects of Drug Sentencing on a Market-Based System_2000


Oakland Police Department, CA

Acute part 1 crimes: murder, assault with a firearm, rape, robbery, and burglary, have long prioritized the Oakland Police Department (OPD)’s agenda in criminal justice.

BOTEC’s recommendations for the OPD Police Chief called for selective targeting of drug markets, by employing a combination of enforcement and community-based pressures, as a means to reduce its attendant crimes.

BOTEC publications for the Oakland Police Department

A Narcotics Control Strategy for Oakland – Sept 1999


Multnomah County Department of Community Corrections

As part of its effort to reduce criminal activity and increase compliance with court orders, the Multnomah County Department of Community Corrections administers drug tests, provides treatment resources, and signals courts when probation & parole violations require intervention. In 1994, the County obtained funding from the US Department of Justice to conduct a Drug Testing and Evaluation program (DTE).

BOTEC consulted on the DTE program, which randomly tested for drug use during pretrial release and post-sentence parole, and found that testing alone had no effect on arrests. In addition, BOTEC provided recommendations improving the Multnomah DOCC’s Structured Sanctions Process for probation violators.

BOTEC publications for the Multnomah County Department of Community Corrections

Examination of Multnomah County’s Sanction Strategy for Probation Violations – Dec 1994
The Effect of Drug Testing on Criminal Activity and Court Order Compliance – April 1994


Santa Cruz County, CA

By 1987, the production and export of narcotics from the County of Santa Cruz had reached epidemic proportions, taxing investigative and litigative resources and requiring innovative drug enforcement solutions.

BOTEC was brought onboard in an advisory capacity with the inception of The Santa Cruz Regional Street Drug Reduction Program in 1987 and again in 1990 to evaluate the program’s progress, in an attempt to bring about improved criminal justice reform. Improvements occurred in the following ways: reductions in county-wide property crime by 20%, burglary and assault rates drops in the City of Santa Cruz of 13% and 43% respectively and the cessation of drug users congregating in public. HIV rates among intravenous drug users also leveled off, though this success could not be isolated and attributed to the program.

BOTEC publications for Santa Cruz County, CA.

Assessment of a Santa Cruz Criminal Justice and Public Health Initiative – June 1990
Designs for a Santa Cruz County Drug Enforcement Program – Aug 1987

President’s Commission on Organized Crime

In 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Order #12435, establishing the President’s Commission on Organized Crime to investigate the emerging nature of organized crime throughout the United States and issue a final report on how to improve law enforcement efforts in criminal justice.

BOTEC submitted an analysis to the President’s Commission outlining the role drug trafficking played in organized crime and what studies should be undertaken to better understand the drug problem within law enforcement’s two concurrent goals of reducing crime networks and curbing abuse.

BOTEC publications for The President’s Commission on Organized Crime

Data Scarcity and Policy Issues Combating Organized Crime and Drug Abuse – Nov 1985

Essex County, MA – District Attorney’s Office

Prosecuting crime within the 34 cities and towns of Essex County is the primary function of the Essex District Attorney’s Office. The Superior Court processes felony crimes, such as murder, rape, armed robbery and motor vehicle homicide, in the three Superior Courts in Essex County. They also present these cases to the Grand Jury for indictment.

For the District Attorney of Essex County, MA, BOTEC studied the effectiveness of the Lynn Heroin Task Force.

BOTEC publications for Essex County’s District Attorney Office

Analysis of Lynn, Massachusetts’s Police Drug Task Force from its Inception through September ’84 – Sept 1984

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