Washington State Liquor Control Board

The Washington State Liquor Control Board (LCB) selected BOTEC Analysis Corporation as consultant for the implementation of Initiative 502, Washington’s voter initiative to legalize and regulate cannabis.

The LCB is an administrative agency of the State of Washington. The LCB is part of the executive branch and reports to the Governor. Previous to the passage of Initiative 502, the board’s primary function was the licensing of on and off premise establishments which sell any type of alcohol, and the enforcement and education of the state’s alcohol and tobacco laws.

BOTEC publications for the Washington State Liquor Control Board_Sept 2013

Regarding BOTEC:

BOTEC compiled multiple papers dealing with a variety of topics for the Washington State Liquor Control Board as the agency worked to implement the legalization of cannabis. In some instances the information they provided served as a starting point for rulemaking. In other cases their information provided a lot more than a starting point.

Everything they provided was well documented and researched. However the most beneficial part of working with BOTEC was the credibility they brought to the process on both a statewide and national level. These are well known, top notch professionals with access to many resources. Having the ability to talk with BOTEC members was extremely helpful.

Regardless of whether or not there was agreement on the topic, the conversations we had were invaluable.

Randy Simmons
Deputy Director

OAG_DC_Seal of WashingtonOffice of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia

After voters passed the Legalization of Marijuana for Medical Treatment Initiative in 1998, the Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia had the task of coordinating differing legalities amongst the federal, state, city, and county jurisdictions due to the district’s unique status and the network of agencies involved in marijuana enforcement.

BOTEC evaluated the program for OAG, looking into the myriad of complications the district faced in enforcement and public health after enacting the medical marijuana initiative under current federal law.

BOTEC publications for the Office of the Attorney General for the D.C.

Diversion, Access, Safety, and Privacy: Recommendations for D.C.’s Medical Marijuana Initiative_May 2013

Washington Office on Latin America

The Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) is an American non-governmental organization (NGO) whose stated goal is to promote human rights, democracy and social and economic justice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

The Washington Office on Latin America facilitates dialogue between governmental and non-governmental actors, monitors the impact of U.S. foreign policy on human rights, democracy and equitable development in Latin America, and promotes alternatives through reporting and advocacy. Through its reports, WOLA informs and educates policy-makers, religious and non-governmental organizations, and the general public about that impact. In addition, WOLA’s briefings bring policy-makers and the media in direct contact with Latin American leaders and experts on a regular basis. WOLA works closely with civil society organizations and government officials throughout the Americas

BOTEC publications for the Washington Office on Latin America

Side-by-Side Comparison of CO and WA Initiatives to Legalize Marijuana_March 2013

National Institute of JusticeNIJ_240x240

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice. NIJ is one of the primary components of the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) branch of the Department of Justice.

For the National Institute of Justice, BOTEC has conducted studies on street-level drug crackdowns, the empirical measurement of drug availability, violence-minimizing drug law enforcement, the behavioral economics of deterrence, and the management of drug-involved offenders.

BOTEC publications for the National Institute of Justice

Synergetic Offenses: Drug Abuse and Crime, and How to Reduce Both_July 2014
Measuring the Costs of Crime_April 2014
Drug-Attributable Crime and Methods to Improve Estimates_April 2014
Drug Control and Reductions in Drug-Attributable Crime_April 2014
Reducing Drug Violence in Mexico Using Targeted Enforcement Methods_April 2014

Hawaii’s HOPE: An Evaluation of Swift & Certain Sanction Strategies for Probationers_Dec 2009
Criminal Justice Strategies to Reduce Drug Abuse in Indianapolis and Marion County_May 1995

Measures Marginal Public Benefit Against the Costs of Incarcerating Each Additional Year_May 1990
Strategic Suggestions for Police Executives_Sept 1989
The Effects of Intensive Enforcement on Retail Heroin Dealing_Sept 1988

CRS (Congressional Research Service)_1280x1280

Congressional Research Service

The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a branch of the Library of Congress, providing non-partisan policy and legal analysis to members of the U.S. Congress.

BOTEC examined the implications of terrorism on domestic policy towards illicit drugs for the CRS, documenting the varied links between drug trafficking and terrorist networks and how to reduce their contribution to one another.

BOTEC publications for the Congressional Research Service

Analyzing the Intersections Between Illicit Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Networks_April 2004


Sociedad sin Violencia (Society without Violence)Sociedad sin Violencia_360x360

Society without Violence is a private social assistance institution that focuses on violence reduction methods using a gender inclusive approach to promote Human Rights and Peace Education.

BOTEC, through reports and consultation, has helped guide Sociedad sin Violencia in crafting drug policies for El Salvador that reduce violence by highlighting responsive frameworks to understand the multifaceted and often misunderstood realities of the drug trade.

BOTEC publications for Sociedad sin Violencia

Pragmatic Violence-Reduction Techniques for El Salvador_Feb 2004
Distinctions, Connections, and Principles for Controlling Drug Abuse and Violence_July 2002

National Academies_300x300National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private scholarly society, established by Congressional charter in 1863, to provide advice to the nation on matters pertaining to science and technology. At the behest of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, NAS established a Committee on Immunotherapies and Sustained-Release Formulations for Treating Drug Addiction in order to draw up the behavioral, ethical and legal questions arising from this treatment.

The cost-benefits analysis on immunotherapies and depot medications drug treatments used by NAS was conducted by BOTEC.

BOTEC publications for the National Academy of Sciences

Cost-Benefits in Treating Substance Abuse with Mental Health Medications or Immunotherapies_July 2003

Regarding BOTEC:

The success of Project HOPE has brought it considerable attention in the media and in policy circles. Its strong evaluation design—a randomized experiment—puts its findings on a sound scientific footing and is among the reasons why its results are highlighted in this report.

That such an effect appears to have been found in a population in which deterrence has previously been ineffective in averting crime makes the finding potentially very important. Thus, research on the deterrent effectiveness of short sentences with high celerity and certainty should be a priority, particularly among crime-prone populations.

Published in The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences

Dr. Jeremy Travis (Chair), John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York
Dr. Bruce Western (Vice Chair), Department of Sociology and Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Dr. Steve Redburn, Affiliated faculty and director, fiscal studies, Center on the Public Service at George Mason University

The National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences

Join Together_Boston Univeristy_453x453Join Together

Join Together, a program of the Boston University School of Public Health, provides community leadership and policy guidance in drug treatment and prevention.

BOTEC examined deficiencies in substance abuse treatment and identified barriers to its remediation, in particular, identifying incentives that maintain less costly options for employers and health insurance issuers.

BOTEC publications for Join Together

An Analysis of Substance Abuse Treatment Quality and its Beneficiaries_Nov 2002

Governor of Georgia ’s Commission on Certainty in SentencingGeorgia Governor_660x660

Georgia has several advisory commissions established under statutory law. The Governor’s Commission on Certainty in Sentencing was founded in 1999 by Governor Roy Barnes and consists of representatives from several law enforcement agencies as well representatives of victims-of-crime advocacy groups.

BOTEC advised the Governor of Georgia on the varying effects of sentencing for the market-based nature of drug crime, identifying the operational difference in selling drugs versus the moral imperative to punish violent crime.

BOTEC publications for the Governor of Georgia

Recognizing the Effects of Drug Sentencing on a Market-Based System_2000

Oakland Police Department, CAOPD_Oakland Police Department_265x265 copy

Acute part 1 crimes: murder, assault with a firearm, rape, robbery, and burglary, have long prioritized the Oakland Police Department (OPD)’s agenda.

BOTEC’s recommendations for the OPD Police Chief called for selective targeting of drug markets, by employing a combination of enforcement and community-based pressures, as a means to reduce its attendant crimes.

BOTEC publications for the Oakland Police Department

A Narcotics Control Strategy for Oakland_Sept 1999


BrookingsBrookings Institute

The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington, DC. whose stated mission is to conduct research that provides innovative and practical recommendations that advance American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous and cooperative international system.

For Brookings, BOTEC provided a panel for the Brookings-WOLA Congressional Briefing and contributed to Brooking’s Governance Studies paper on the legalization of marijuana. Here BOTEC provided guidance on audits of quality control firms as well as state liability issues. BOTEC also served on Brookings’ Marijuana Legalization and New Domestic and International Initiatives Challenge the Status Quo panels in 2013 and 2012.

BOTEC publications for the Brookings Institute

Reveals Why Softer Drug Policies Work Better than Hard-Line Paternalism_1997

Regarding BOTEC:

Mark Kleiman is a creative and independent thinker whose integrity I feel I can take to the bank. Whether the subject is crime, substance abuse, or something else, when he talks, I listen.

Jonathan Rauch
Senior fellow
Brookings Institution

ondcpOffice of National Drug Control Policy

The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) is a component of the Executive Office of the President. ONDCP was created by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. ONDCP advises the President on drug-control issues, coordinates drug-control activities and related funding across the Federal government, and produces the annual National Drug Control Strategy, which outlines Administration efforts to reduce illicit drug use, manufacturing and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences.

For the ONDCP, BOTEC developed what became known as the HOPE approach to demand reduction for illicit drugs, prepared the original allocation of sites for the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program, as well as writing assessments on the shifting trends in the supply and consumption of illicit drugs.

BOTEC publications for the Office of National Drug Control Policy

Integrating Direct Demand Reduction Programs into the Criminal Justice System_June 1995
Reviewing Cost-Effectiveness Studies on Drug Treatment, Calling for Proper Control_Jan 1995
State of US Heroin Use: Ripe Conditions for an Epidemic_Nov 1994

Analyzing Marijuana Supply and Consumption Trends as Attitudes Shift_Sept 1994
Reducing Demand: Heroin Acquisition Times and its Deterrents_Aug 1994
Understanding the Logistics of Heroin Distribution and Availability_Sept 1993
Methodology Developing Price Series from Drug Data, Addressing Issues for Policy Use_June 1993
Charting Increases in US Heroin Imports and the Rise in New Users_Jan 1992

Multnomah County Oregon_1250x1250Multnomah County Department of Community Corrections

As part of its effort to reduce criminal activity and increase compliance with court orders, the Multnomah County Department of Community Corrections administers drug tests, provides treatment resources, and signals courts when probation & parole violations require intervention. In 1994, the County obtained funding from the US Department of Justice to conduct a Drug Testing and Evaluation program (DTE).

BOTEC consulted on the DTE program, which randomly tested for drug use during pretrial release and post-sentence parole, and found that testing alone had no effect on arrests. In addition, BOTEC provided recommendations improving the Multnomah DOCC’s Structured Sanctions Process for probation violators.

BOTEC publications for the Multnomah County Department of Community Corrections

Examination of Multnomah County’s Sanction Strategy for Probation Violations_Dec 1994
The Effect of Drug Testing on Criminal Activity and Court Order Compliance_April 1994

Jackson County, MissouriJackson County, MI_220x220

Jackson County introduced the Anti-Drug Sales Tax as a community funded initiative to curb the drug problems in the area.

BOTEC assisted Jackson County through studying the drug problems in the community, with a primary focus on the urban areas. Based on this analysis, recommendations were made by BOTEC to involve a number of different agencies in Jackson County. In particular, their legislation, judicial procedures, law enforcement, and the implementation of upgraded technology.

BOTEC publications for Jackson County, Missouri

An Evaluation of the Drug Abuse Problem in Jackson County, Missouri_Dec 1990

County of Santa Cruz_160x160Santa Cruz County, CA

By 1987, the production and export of narcotics from the County of Santa Cruz had reached epidemic proportions, taxing investigative and litigative resources and requiring innovative drug enforcement solutions.

BOTEC was brought onboard in an advisory capacity with the inception of The Santa Cruz Regional Street Drug Reduction Program in 1987 and again in 1990 to evaluate the program’s progress. Improvements occurred in the following ways: reductions in county-wide property crime by 20%, burglary and assault rates drops in the City of Santa Cruz of 13% and 43% respectively and the cessation of drug users congregating in public. HIV rates among intravenous drug users also leveled off, though this success could not be isolated and attributed to the program.

BOTEC publications for the Santa Cruz County, CA.

Assessment of a Santa Cruz Criminal Justice and Public Health Initiative_June 1990
Designs for a Santa Cruz County Drug Enforcement Program_Aug 1987

National Institute on Drug AbuseNIDA_350

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is one of 27 institutes comprising the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the premier research agency for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA’s mission is to lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction.

Some of BOTEC’S earliest work includes a series of technical reports generated for NIDA; the scope of which include evaluative analyses on psychoactive drug regulation policies, domestic and international drug scheduling, and research methodologies on drug abuse liability studies.

BOTEC publications for The National Institute on Drug Abuse

Describes the US Role in International Drug Scheduling_Jan 1986
An Evaluation of Psychoactive Drug Regulation Policies_Jan 1986
A Legislative History of Domestic Drug Scheduling, Pharmaceutical Safety Laws, & Drug Application Processes_Jan 1986
Research Methodologies of Drug Abuse Liability Studies_Dec 1985

President’s Commission on Organized Crime

In 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Order #12435, establishing the President’s Commission on Organized Crime to investigate the emerging nature of organized crime throughout the United States and issue a final report on how to improve law enforcement efforts.

BOTEC submitted an analysis to the President’s Commission outlining the role drug trafficking played in organized crime and what studies should be undertaken to better understand the drug problem within law enforcement’s two concurrent goals of reducing crime networks and curbing abuse.

BOTEC publications for The President’s Commission on Organized Crime

Data Scarcity and Policy Issues Combating Organized Crime and Drug Abuse_Nov 1985

Essex County, MA – District Attorney’s Office

Prosecuting crime within the 34 cities and towns of Essex County is the primary function of the Essex District Attorney’s Office. The Superior Court processes felony crimes, such as murder, rape, armed robbery and motor vehicle homicide, in the three Superior Courts in Essex County. They also present these cases to the Grand Jury for indictment.

For the District Attorney of Essex County, MA, BOTEC studied the effectiveness of the Lynn Heroin Task Force.

BOTEC publications for Essex County’s District Attorney Office

Analysis of Lynn, Massachusetts’s Police Drug Task Force from its Inception through September ’84_Sept 1984

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